Cambrian – Cube

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Cambrian Ceramic Co. Ltd

?–Active 1970

Earthenware manufacturer at Masonic St, Llandudno, North Wales. The business was a maker of tableware, kitchenware, oven-to-table ware, and general earthenware including vases, bowls, pet accessories, lamp bases pomanders and similar general earthenware.

Cambrian Pottery Co. Ltd

1958–?

Makers of hand-crafted pottery at Llandudno, Wales. The pottery’s name reflects, but has no relation to, that of the famous Cambrian Pottery that operated at Swansea, South Wales between 1764 and 1870.

Cameleon China Ltd

?–2000

Cameleon China Ltd of the Boundary Works, King St Longton, was listed as the subject of a compulsory wind-up order in November 2000.

Camelot Pottery

1967–Active 2009

See the entry for the Boscastle Pottery.

Campbellfield Pottery Co. (Ltd)

1850–1905 (Inc. c.1884)

Earthenware manufacturer at Springburn, Glasgow, Scotland.

Candy & Co. Ltd

1850–1991

Earthenware manufacturer at the Great Western Pottery, Newton Abbot, Devon. Candy & Co. was established by Frank Candy in 1850 and operated as a tile manufactory until sold to J. Howard Fox in about 1880. The Fox family were still in control of the business in the 1950s, however, the business may have had other owners before it closed in 1991. Candy & Co. was a large-scale manufacturer of industrial ceramics, tiles and tiled fireplaces throughout its life rivalling companies in the Staffordshire Potteries. Ornamental and art pottery was introduced from about 1916 and production of hand thrown art ware was much expanded in the 1930s and sold under the ‘Westcontree Ware’ name. The trade name ‘Candy Ware’ was also used from the mid-1930s. The art ware of Candy & Co. Ltd is little known and probably underrated by collectors.

Canning Pottery Co.

1907–c.1936

Earthenware manufacturer at the Canning Pottery, Canning St, Fenton. Canning Pottery Co. was formed by a partnership including members of the Plant family in about 1912. The main products were teapots, jugs and other utilitarian earthenware, but from about 1923 the company produced art wares under the ‘Decoro’ trade name. The Decoro art wares were hand-painted, in strong, muted, colours using mainly traditional floral and bird motifs over a dark glaze. When the company closed in about 1936, the Decoro name was purchased by R. H. & S. L. Plant Ltd who continued to use the name for their own decorative art wares. The Canning Pottery Co. mark was an urn overlaid with ‘Decoro’. The company registered the ‘Decoro’ trade name and the registration number 422479 also appears on wares. See also the entry for Decoro Pottery Co.

Capo-di-Monte Porcelain Co. Ltd

?–post-1978

Importers and distributors of Capo-di-Monte porcelain figurines from the Ipa factory in Italy. The Capo-di-Monte Porcelain Co. Ltd of Blackpool advertised the handmade Ipa figurines as investments and superior to the Capo-di-Monte figurines from competitor factories. The company was active in the 1970s.

Capper & Wood

1892–1904

Earthenware manufacturer at the Bradwell Works, Davenport St, Longton. Established in 1892 (1895?), the partnership was dissolved in 1904 when Arthur Wood became sole owner, continuing the business under his own name. For further information see the entry for Wood (Arthur Wood & Son (Longport) Ltd).

Cara China Co.

c.1945–Active 2005

Manufacturer of bone china jewellery, bird studies, floral china, ash trays, etc at Huron Grove, Trentham and at High St, and Uttoxeter Rd, Longton. The business was active in 2005 but appears to have closed before 2009.

Carborundum Co. Ltd

1966–1978 (as owner of Spode Ltd)

The British subsidiary of the Carborundum Company of Niagara Falls, New York, Carborundum Co. Ltd acquired W. T. Copeland & Sons Ltd (styled Spode Ltd from 1970) in 1966, and Hammersley & Co (Longton) Ltd in June 1970. Both acquisitions were later (1978) sold to Royal Worcester. See the entries for Copeland (W. T. Copeland & Sons Ltd), Spode Ltd, and Royal Worcester Ltd.

Cardew (Paul Cardew)

Active 2009

A studio potter at the Rame Pottery, Cawsand, Cornwall. Paul Cardew is an individual potter who launched his career in 1975 with the foundation of Sunshine Ceramics, a company dedicated to the manufacture novelty teapots. Other ceramics enterprises followed including South West Ceramics, Cardew Design Ltd (1991–2004), and Craft at Cardew (2004-?). Cardew currently (2009) operates at the Rame Pottery making figurines and animal models; and teaching his own highly individual approach to ceramic design.

In addition to ‘eccentric’ teapots (see the entry for Cardew Design Ltd), Paul Cardew is best known for the original (1982) set of five NatWest Bank pigs (piggy banks) modelled by Cardew and used by the Bank for promotional purposes. Cardew’s small company, Sunshine Ceramics, could not keep up with demand and manufacture was eventually taken over by Wade. Since 2008, however, Cardew has been producing hand made Silver Anniversary editions of the original pigs.

Cardew Design, Ltd

1991–2004

Maker of designer teapots. Cardew Design Ltd was established in 1991 by Paul Cardew and Peter Kirvan as the vehicle for their interests in the design, manufacture and sale of novelty teapots. The company operated from the Cardew Teapot Pottery, Bovey Tracey, Devon, and followed the earlier Paul Cardew enterprises Sunshine Ceramics (c.1975) and South West Ceramics which also manufactured teapots. Cardew Design Ltd ceased operation in 2004 and was replaced by a new Cardew venture ‘Craft at Cardew’, still located at Bovey Tracey. The Paul Cardew designed teapots have developed a strong collector following with an active collectors’ club.

Cardew (Michael Cardew)

19011983

See the entry for the Wenford Bridge Pottery.

Carisbrooke Pottery Works

1929–1932

A studio pottery established in c.1929 at Newport, Isle of Wight. The Carisbrooke Pottery was associated with Samuel Saunders, later of the Isle of Wight Pottery, Whippingham, Isle of Wight.

Carlton & Kent

1989–1989

Formerly County Potteries plc. Carlton & Kent was, briefly, the owner of the Carlton Ware Ltd and James Kent Ltd businesses. It was formed, and went into receivership, in 1989. See the entry for County Potteries plc.

Carlton Ware Ltd.

1958–1987 (Also active 1987–1997 under various owners)

Manufacturer of earthenware and china at the Carlton Works, Stoke. Formerly Wiltshaw & Robinson Ltd, the name Carlton Ware Ltd was adopted from January 1958. The principal, F. Cuthbert Wiltshaw, died in 1966 and Carlton Ware Ltd was then placed in voluntary liquidation.

The business was acquired by Arthur Wood and Son (Longport) Ltd and the company continued to trade under its Carlton Ware Ltd name as part of the Arthur Wood Group for the next twenty years. The business was sold to County Potteries plc in December 1987 and the new owner operated the business with that of James Kent Ltd under the name ‘Carlton & Kent’. Some ‘Carlton Ware’ branded wares were produced at the James Kent factory, but the venture was short-lived and in early 1989 the business was placed in receivership. In May 1989 the name, pattern books and some Carlton Ware moulds were sold to John McCluskey, proprietor of Grosvenor Ceramic Hardware Ltd. Grosvenor recommenced manufacture of Carlton Ware branded earthenware in 1990, but production ceased in 1992. In 1997 the right to the Carlton Ware name was purchased by Francis Salmon and since 1997 a new Carlton Ware, aimed at the collector market has been born—see the following entry.

The Carlton Ware products of the late 1950s and 1960s include the famous lustre wares (first produced in the 1920s), re-issues and some new patterns in the enormously varied embossed fruit and floral wares, and contemporary wares in 1950s/1960s patterns such as Windswept (1958), Leaf and Pinstripe. Walking Ware, designed by Roger Michell and Danka Napiorkowska and introduced in 1973, was probably the last popular Carlton Ware design, remaining in production until the mid-1980s. The trade name/backstamp ‘Carlton Ware’ mark is present on most wares. See the entry for Wiltshaw & Robinson Ltd for the early history of the company, and the entry below for information on the post-1997 Carlton Ware.

Carlton Ware Direct Ltd

1997–Active 2009

In 1997 the name and remaining Carlton Ware moulds were acquired by Francis Salmon, a partner in Kevin Francis Ceramics and principal of the publisher Francis Joseph. Under Salmon’s guidance Carlton Ware has been reborn and the name is now used on a wide range of exclusive giftware and collectors’ pieces including novelty teapots, figurines, Mabel Lucie Attwell wares, animal models, vases, bowls, thimbles and similar ornamental wares. Ceramic artist Marie Graves has produced some striking art deco-styled wares inspired by both Carlton Ware vases of the period and Clarice Cliff designs. There is an active Collectors’ Club and web site. These modern ‘Carlton Wares’ still carry the famous script ‘Carlton Ware’ mark – and sometimes even the words ‘Genuine Carlton Ware’.

Carn Pottery

1971–Active 2009

A studio Pottery established in 1971 at Nancledra, Penzance, Cornwall by John Michael Buesmans. John Buesmans trained at Redruth Art College and at the Celtic Pottery, Newlyn, before establishing his Carn Pottery business. John Buesmans is a prolific craftsman and produces highly individual hand-thrown, slab-formed and slip-cast art wares and animal models. Vases are the most common Carn art ware, produced in cylindrical and rectilinear forms and readily recognisable as products of the Carn Pottery. All of John Buesmans works are now highly sought, but the delicate ‘fan’ vases and Carn cats are the most recognisable and collectible wares. Most wares are marked with a simple printed ‘Carn Pottery’ mark.

Caroline Pottery Ltd

1946–1953

Earthenware manufacturer at Caroline St., Longton. Manufacturer of teawares and fancy goods including figurines, vases and animal models.

Carr (John Carr & Sons)

1845–1900

Earthenware manufacturer at the Low Lights Pottery, North Shields, Northumberland. The business produced domestic earthenware for the local market.

Carrigaline Pottery Co. Ltd.

1928–1980

Earthenware manufacturer at Carrigaline, County Cork, Ireland. The Carrigaline Pottery was founded at Cork, Ireland, in 1928 by Hodder Roberts, based on his realisation that the local brick-making clays were suitable for pottery manufacture. Roberts imported expertise from the Staffordshire Potteries and at its peak the company had over 200 workers. The business failed in April 1980 and the assets were acquired by the Cork Art Pottery Ltd owned by German pottery entrepreneur Mr Lutz Kiel. The Carrigaline Pottery produced a wide range of domestic earthenware, slip-banded wares, tableware, mugs, kitchenware and oven-to-table ware. The name ‘Carrig Ware’ was used. Shamrock leaves over the name form the pottery mark. A company with the name Carrigaline Pottery Ireland Ltd operated at the site from 1989 to c.2002. See, also, the entry for Cork Art Pottery Ltd.

Carrigdhoun Pottery Co. Ltd

1983–1989?

Earthenware manufacturer at Carrigaline, County Cork, Ireland. Formerly the Cork Art Pottery Co. Ltd, Carrigdhoun was formed as a worker co-operative to continue the business known originally as Carrigaline Pottery Co. Ltd and then, from 1980 to 1983, as the Cork Art Pottery Co. Ltd. Carrigdhoun produced mid-range tableware, mugs, giftware and advertising ware.

Carter & Co. (Ltd)

1873–1964 (Inc. 1927)

Manufacturer of tiles, architectural products and art pottery. This important pottery business was established by Jesse Carter, a builders’ merchant, at Poole, Dorset, in 1873. Carter purchased a near-derelict tile factory on Poole’s East Quay and, as his purpose was to supply the building trade, the initial products were floor and wall tiles, mosaics, chimney pots, and architectural panels. Carter’s enterprise was successful and in 1895 he purchased a local rival the ‘Patent Architectural Pottery’, at Hamworthy, Poole. Carter retired in about 1901 and his sons Owen and Charles Carter continued the concern as Carter & Co.

Owen Carter died in 1919 and in 1921 Charles and Cyril Carter (his son) joined with John Adams and Harold Stabler to form a private company ‘Carter, Stabler & Adams’ to develop the embryonic art pottery business begun by Owen Carter in the early 1900s. Carter & Co. continued as the tile and architectural product side of the business. In 1927 Carter & Co. was converted to a limited liability company Carter & Co. Ltd, with Carter, Stabler & Adams as a subsidiary. Cyril C. Carter was the initial Chairman and Managing Director of Carter & Co. Ltd, a position he held into the early 1960s.

There was a further company restructure in 1958 and Carter & Co Ltd. became the holding company for Carter, Stabler & Adams Ltd and Carter Tiles Ltd, the latter a new company responsible for the manufacture of tiles and architectural pottery. In December 1964 Carter & Co. Ltd was taken over by Pilkington Tiles Ltd and the post-1964 history of Carter & Co. Ltd is unclear. Carter & Co. although generally associated with the Carter, Stabler & Adams art wares, was primarily a manufacturer of tiles and architectural products and through the 1950s was one of the leading tile manufacturers in the United Kingdom. For further information see the entries for Carter, Stabler & Adams Ltd and for Poole Pottery Ltd.

Carter, Stabler & Adams (Ltd.)

1921–1964 (Inc. 1924)

Manufacturer of art pottery and domestic earthenware at East Quay, Poole, Dorset. Carter, Stabler & Adams was formed in 1921 by Charles Carter, the head of Carter & Co., with the artist and designer Harold Stabler and the potter John Adams. It was incorporated as Carter, Stabler & Adams Ltd in 1924.

There are several accounts of how and why the new company was formed. What is known is that Owen Carter, the driving force behind Carter & Co’s manufacture of art pottery, died in 1919 and control of the company passed to his brother Charles and Charles’ son Cyril C. Carter. According to R. R. Tomlinson, a close friend of John Adams, Harold Stabler introduced Adams to Cyril Carter who was interested in continuing the art pottery business begun by his uncle. Adams, a talented potter and designer had returned to England in 1920 after leaving a position as Head of the School of Art in Durban, South Africa. Agreement was quickly reached and the new venture was formed with John Adams the first Managing Director.

In 1927 Carter Stabler & Adams Ltd became a subsidiary of Carter & Co. Ltd and member of the ‘Carter Group’. Pilkington tiles acquired Carter & Co. Ltd and its subsidiaries in December 1964 and Carter, Stabler & Adams Ltd and the new owners changed its name to ‘Poole Pottery Ltd’.

The Carter, Stabler & Adams wares produced in the 1920’s and 30’s form a unique oeuvre and are keenly sought by modern collectors. Shapes were designed by Harold and Phoebe Stabler (and John Adams) and John and Truda Adams were primarily responsible for the patterns used to decorate the wares. Products of the period include decorative tiles, and hand thrown vases, jugs, bowls, plates, dishes etc. finished in a vast array of colours, patterns and glaze effects. No tableware was produce until at least the mid-1930s. Early in its life the company developed what has become known as ‘traditional’ Poole Pottery ware—hand thrown wares decorated using the an in-glaze technique where the pattern was painted onto the glaze before firing rather than being painted onto the biscuit (underglaze) or onto the fired glaze. The result was a characteristic soft look accentuated by the use of predominant blue, green and purple tones and a semi-matte glaze.

The first Poole tableware, the ‘Studland’ range designed by Adams, was not produced until about 1930. It too was hand-decorated (the company did not use lithographs or gilding or printed patterns before 1958). The Purbeck range followed, and then the Adams Streamline shape in 1935-36. The development of the ‘Twintone’ decoration using complementary coloured glazes on the inside and outside of wares also dates from about this time.

The Pottery managed to survive the Second World War in much reduced form. Harold Stabler had died in 1944 and it fell to Cyril Carter to rebuild the business in the immediate post-war period. John Adams, Managing Director, retired in 1949 and was replaced by Lucien Myers, a man with intimate knowledge of the interior design industry. The talented designer A. B. Read was appointed Director of Design in 1952 and in 1958 Robert Jefferson joined the company as a designer. Jefferson’s enormous contribution to ceramic history included ‘Contour’ shape tableware introduced in 1958 to replace Adams ‘Streamline’ shape and the brightly coloured ‘Delphis’ art wares that have become an icon of 1960s and 1970s UK ceramics. The ‘Delphis’ ware consisted of a range of basic shape onto which decorators applied brilliantly coloured glazed in freehand form.

Carter, Stabler & Adams marks used from c.1921 include an impressed script ‘CSA’, and a simple impressed seal with ‘Poole England’ with or without the company’s name. The various ‘Dolphin’ marks, also with the word ‘Poole’ are believed to post-date 1950. For the later history of this important pottery see the entry for Poole Pottery Ltd.

Cartwright & Edwards (Ltd.)

c.1857–1990?

Manufacturer of earthenware and china at various factories in and around Stoke. Cartwright & Edwards was established in about 1857 and produced earthenware at the Borough Pottery, Fenton. Bone china manufacture was commenced following the acquisition of the Victoria Pottery in 1912. The Heron Cross Pottery, Fenton, was purchased in 1916 and in 1939, Holdcrofts Ltd, including their Sutherland Works, were acquired.

In 1955, Alfred Clough Ltd acquired the entire share capital of Cartwright & Edwards Ltd, selling the old Borough and Victoria Works while continuing production under the Cartwright & Edwards name at the Newborough and Sutherland Works. Cartwright & Edwards continued to trade as a subsidiary of Alfred Clough Ltd until 1982 when, with other Clough (now Grindleys of Stoke (Ceramics) Ltd) subsidiaries including W. H. Grindley Ltd and Salisbury Bone China Ltd, it was sold to the United Kingdom Provident Society and became part of Federated Potteries Co. Ltd. In 1987 the Federated Potteries businesses were dispersed and Cartwright and Edwards Ltd was purchased by the Coloroll Homewares Group and, with Staffordshire Potteries Ltd, Denbyware Ltd, Royal Winton and Biltons Tableware Ltd formed the Coloroll Ceramics Division. Coloroll went into receivership in 1990 and the later history of Cartwright & Edwards Ltd is unclear.

Cartwright & Edwards were manufacturers of low to mid-priced teawares of no special distinction. Marks usually include the initials ‘C&E’, often with a crown. The word ‘Victoria’ often occurs on china teawares made at the Victoria China Works. Trade names include Norville Ware and Boronian Ware used in the 1930s, and ‘Table Tops’ used in the 1970s.

Castle-an-Dinas Pottery

Late-1960s–early-1970s

A studio pottery established in the late 1960s at Nancledra, Cornwall by Donald Sinclair Swan and Elizabeth Lane. Swan studied at the Leach Pottery in the 1960s before establishing the Castle-an-Dinas Pottery. He closed the pottery in the early-1970s and moved back to his native Scotland. Swan is best known as an accomplished illustrator and artist.

Castle Wynd Potteries

c.1950–?

Earthenware manufacturer at Castle Wynd, Edinburgh, and Gifford, East Lothian, Scotland. The pottery is named after its initial location at Castle Wynd, Edinburgh, but the business moving to Gifford in 1953, and to Kingussie, Invernesshire in 1977. At some point, pre-1974, the name became Castlewynd Studios Ltd. Castle Wynd Potteries was established in 1950 by Mr James G. Crawford and Ms Mary Mackay, both former students at the Edinburgh College of Art. The business made domestic earthenware based on traditional Scottish wares. Mary Mackay produced animal figurines and grotesques marketed under the name ‘Dabbities’. The pottery mark is formed by the name within a circular seal.

Castlewynd Studios Ltd

?–Active 1977

Earthenware manufacturer at various locations in Scotland. See the entry for Castle Wynd Potteries.

Castlewynd Studios (Highland China) Ltd

1974–1981

Manufacturer of bone china tableware at Kingussie, Invernesshire, Scotland. Established in 1974 as a subsidiary of Castlewynd Studios Ltd, the company became Highland China (Scotland) Ltd in 1981. From c.1975 the business produced bone china tableware, reputedly the first bone china to be produced in Scotland in 100 years. See the entry for Highland China (Scotland) Ltd.

Cauldon Ltd.

1904–1920

An important manufacturer of china and earthenware at Cauldon Place, Shelton. Formerly Brown-Westhead Moore & Co. Cauldon Ltd is the commonly used shortened form of the full name Cauldon (Brown-Westhead Moore & Co.) Ltd adopted when the Brown-Westhead, Moore & Co. business was incorporated in 1904. Ownership and management of the business did not change.

Cauldon Ltd was placed in receivership in 1920 and was purchased from the receiver by Mr. Harold Taylor Robinson for the sum of £100,000. Robinson subsequently floated a new company Cauldon Potteries Ltd and on-sold the Cauldon Ltd business and Cauldon Place Works to the new concern.

The Brown-Westhead, Moore & Co. and Cauldon Ltd businesses were large-scale manufacturers of domestic china and earthenware. Richly decorated wares were produced for the top-end of the market in addition to more ordinary domestic wares. Numerous marks were used by these businesses, including variants of earlier ‘Ridgway’ marks, marks including the initials ‘BWM’, and the name ‘Cauldon’—used (alone or with a crown) from the early 1890s. Dating by mark is therefore difficult. For further information see the entry for Cauldon Potteries Ltd.

Cauldon Potteries Ltd (I)

1920–1932 (1962)

Manufacturer of china and earthenware at Cauldon Place, Shelton, and from 1935 at the Crescent Pottery, Stoke. Pottery industry entrepreneur Harold Taylor Robinson bought Cauldon (Brown-Westhead, Moore & Co.) Ltd from its receiver in 1920 for £100,000. Robinson then ‘promoted’ to friends and investors a new company Cauldon Potteries Ltd to which he then sold Cauldon Ltd receiving in consideration £90,000 in Cauldon Potteries Ltd shares.

Robinson retained effective control of Cauldon Potteries Ltd and used the company as the base for his varied and ever expanding pottery empire. J. A. Robinson & Sons Ltd and its many subsidiary companies was merged into Cauldon Potteries Ltd and this was followed by the acquisition of Coalport China (John Rose & Co.) Ltd in 1924. By 1932 companies under the Cauldon Potteries umbrella included Allertons Ltd, Brown-Westhead, Moore & Co. Ltd, Robinson & Leadbeater, Arkinstall & Son, J. A. Robinson & Sons, Ltd, G. L. Ashworth & Bros, Ridgways (Bedford Works) Ltd, F & R. Pratt & Co. Ltd, Grindley Hotel Ware Co. Ltd and W. H. Goss Ltd (this list is not exhaustive).

Robinson’s businesses, especially those exporting to North America suffered from the effects of the Great Depression and in 1932 Cauldon Potteries Ltd was placed in receivership by its debenture holders (Harold Taylor Robinson was declared bankrupt at about the same time). The Cauldon Potteries Ltd assets were sold and Cauldon Potteries Ltd, including its prestigious Coalport subsidiary, were acquired by Harrison & Son (Hanley) Ltd. In 1935 the Harrisons consolidated their pottery interests at their George Jones & Sons Ltd (Crescent China) works and the three firms (George Jones, Cauldon and Coalport) operated as a group although maintaining their separate identities.

In 1958 the fine china operations of the group, primarily Coalport but including parts of the Cauldon Potteries Ltd and George Jones businesses were sold to E. Brain & Co. Ltd. By 1962, the remaining earthenware business trading as Cauldon Potteries Ltd was in liquidation and the name and goodwill was acquired by Pountney & Co. Ltd of Bristol. Note: There are more recent users of the Cauldon (or Royal Cauldon) Potteries Ltd name.

Cauldon Potteries Ltd (II)

Pre-1984–Active 2009

A company by the name Cauldon Potteries Ltd (or Royal Cauldon Potteries Ltd) currently (2009) operates at Pottery Lane, Knottingly, Yorkshire. According to a local history, the Kingston Pottery, Hull, purchased the Ferrybridge Pottery in 1984, also acquiring the Cauldon Potteries Ltd name and business from T. Brown & Son, the operators, and perhaps also owners, of the Ferrybridge Pottery since 1926. The Kingston Pottery failed in 1985 and a report in Tableware International in 1986 (Vol 16 (2), page 24) records that ‘Mason Cash has acquired Cauldon Potteries of Ferrybridge, West Yorkshire’.

Cauldon Potters Ltd

1962–1969

Earthenware manufacturer at Fishponds, Bristol. Formerly Cauldon Potteries Ltd. Pountney & Co. Ltd acquired the name and goodwill of Cauldon Potteries Ltd in 1962 and moved the means of production to their Fishponds, Bristol factory as Cauldon Potters Ltd. The new owners re-established production of fine earthenware using some of the traditional 19th century Cauldon patterns under the ‘Royal Cauldon’ trade name. See also the entries for Pountney & Co. Ltd and Cauldon Bristol Potteries Ltd.

Cauldon Bristol Potteries Ltd

1969–1974?

Earthenware manufacturer at Wilson Way, Redruth, Cornwall. Formerly Pountney & Co. Ltd. Cauldon Bristol Potteries Ltd was the name adopted for the merged operations of Pountney & Co. Ltd and its subsidiary Cauldon Potters Ltd on completion of the move from the Bristol Pottery, Fishponds, Bristol to Redruth in Cornwall. The move was completed in December 1969. Financial difficulties led to the acquisition of the company by A. G. Richardson & Co. Ltd (Crown Ducal) in early 1972. The new owners pledged to continue the business as before, but in March 1974, A. G. Richardson & Co. Ltd was itself taken over by Enoch Wedgwood (Tunstall) Ltd and, six years later in 1980, the latter company was absorbed by the Wedgwood Group.

In its short life, Cauldon Bristol Potteries Ltd produced domestic tableware, teapots, fancy tableware, hotel and catering ware, and promotional wares. Trade names included ‘Royal Cauldon’ and ‘Bristol’ hotelware. An Enoch Wedgwood advertisement published in Tableware International in 1977 (Vol 7) displays a dinner service in a traditional 19th Century transfer print pattern with the inscription ‘Crown Ducal ‘Bristol’’.

Cauldon Ceramics Ltd

Active 2009

Specialist manufacturer of teapots at the Caledonia Mills Pottery, Crown Clarence Works, Longton. Cauldon Ceramics Ltd produce traditional ‘Brown Betty’ teapots cast in one piece from red terracotta clay and glazed with the traditional brown Rockingham glaze.

Caverswall China Co. Ltd

1973–Active 2009

Bone china manufacturer at Berryhill Rd, Fenton. Caverswall China Co. Ltd was founded by John Chown and partners at Woodland St, Tunstall, in 1973. The business moved to Berryhill, Fenton, in 1977. Under the management of the Chown family and with John Ball as its art director, Caverswall produced small quantities of hand-decorated bone china ornamental ware of the highest possible quality, including vases, bowls, table accessories, miniatures, dressing table fancies, thimbles and bird and animal models. ‘Durham’ vases, decorated with copies of Canelleto paintings and Turner seascapes, were advertised in 1975 in a limited edition of 50 pairs. Caverswall introduced tableware from c.1978 including intricately decorated and gilded ‘Japan’ style patterns.

In May 1983 Caverswall purchased the assets of S. Fielding & Co. Ltd, including the Devon Pottery, on the liquidation of the latter company. Mould making and printing were transferred to the Devon Pottery, but financial difficulties quickly followed and the owners of Caverswall accepted an offer of purchase from Thomas Goode & Co., the London-based retailer of luxury goods. From late-1983 Caverswall, trading under the name Hendhouse Ltd, was a subsidiary of Thomas Goode & Co., but the Caverswall business was put into receivership in 1986 and was sold to Bullers plc for £150,000 becoming part of their Consumer Products Division.

In 1994 Caverswall China was re-acquired by Thomas Goode & Co. Ltd and used for the manufacture of Thomas Goode branded wares. The Caverswall name was re-launched by Thomas Goode in 2008 still with its original emphasis on tableware, limited editions, commemorative ware, and bespoke porcelain of the highest quality.

Cellar Pottery

1961 –1966

A studio Pottery at St Ives, Cornwall. The Cellar Pottery was run by Christiane Richards as a decorating studio using earthenware from the nearby Arch Pottery of Anthony Richards. The Richards moved to the Penderleath Pottery in 1966.

Cellon Ltd

1950s–1960s

Cellon Ltd was a company within the Lawley Group Ltd.

Celtic Pottery

Mid-1960s –Late-1970s

A studio Pottery established by William and Margaret Fisher at Mousehole, Penzance, Cornwall in the mid-1960s. In the late 1960s the Pottery, now run by Margaret Fisher alone, moved to the ‘Old School House’ at Newlyn and, later still, merged with the Gwavas Pottery run by Everidge Stevens. The Celtic Pottery ceased operation in the late 1970s when Margaret Fisher established the new Sunset Ceramics business at Newlyn.

The Celtic Pottery produced earthenware giftware and tableware including coffee sets, vases, bowls, mugs, lamp bases, decorative tiles and animal figurines. Many items were decorated in ‘Celtic Folk’ style—bold, heraldic animal motifs in black on blue or yellow backgrounds originally designed by Bill Fisher. Wares are unmarked, but are so characteristic as to be readily recognisable. Celtic Pottery wares have become highly sought.

Ceramic Design Ltd

1960s–Active 1970

Earthenware manufacturer at Radnor Walk, London. Producer of general earthenware—vases, bowls, figurines, animal models, decorated tiles, hotel wares, presentation and promotional wares etc as an associate of the Chelsea Pottery/Rawnsley Academy. See the entry for the Chelsea Pottery.

Ceramic Art Co. Ltd

1892 –1903

Pottery decorators at Stoke Rd., Hanley.

Ceramic Art Co. (1905) Ltd

1905 –1919

Earthenware manufacturer at the Crown Pottery, Stoke. This short-lived company produced tableware, including some with interesting art nouveau style decoration.

Chapman (David Chapman & Sons)

Chapman & Sons (Stoke-on-Trent) Ltd

(1889 –1904), 1904 –1906

Bone china manufacturer at the Atlas Works, Longton. The business operated as Chapman & Sons (Stoke-on-Trent) Ltd from 1904 to 1906, and from 1906 to 1910 as the Atlas China Co. Ltd.

Chapman’s (Longton) Ltd

1916 –1966

Bone china manufacturer at the Albert Works, Longton. Chapman’s (Longton) Ltd was formed in 1916 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Thomas C. Wild & Sons and occupied the latter’s Albert Works. The business continued in production until closed in 1966 when Allied English Potteries reorganised production from the Wild companies it had acquired in 1964. Chapman’s (Longton) Ltd produced middle-of-the-market bone china tea and dinner wares under the ‘Standard China’ and ‘Royal Standard’ trade names. The company also produced bone china fancy wares such as candle sticks and posy-holders.

Charmouth Pottery

? –Active 1970

Manufacturer of general earthenware at Charmouth, Dorset. Products include vases, bowls, presentation wares etc.

Chelsea Pottery

1952–1994 (1997)

Manufacturer of earthenware at Radnor Walk, Chelsea, London. The Chelsea Pottery was founded by David and Mary Rawnsley in 1952 and was also known as the ‘Rawnsley Academy’ as the Rawnsleys’ engaged in teaching and opened the Pottery facilities to members who paid an annual subscription.

David Rawnsley had been an architect and engineer and had previously run a communal pottery in Paris. Once established, the Rawnsleys’ left Chelsea in 1959 to start another Pottery in the Bahamas, leaving the Chelsea Pottery in the management of Brian Hubbard, a role Hubbard was to fulfil until the Pottery closed in the late-1990s. Mary Rawnsley and four children returned to Radnor Walk in the early 1960s whilst David Rawnsley re-married, lived in California, and died in the early 1970s.

Brian Hubbard, Joyce Morgan, and modeller Frank Spindler were the mainstays of the Chelsea Pottery and in the 1960s and 1970s it became well-known in London artistic and entertainment circles, and even developed a following in North America. Slip-cast wares were produced by a subsidiary Ceramic Design Ltd. In 1994 the Pottery’s lease expired and although alternative premises were found, the Pottery closed in 1997. The Pottery produced animal figures, figurines, flower and fruit bowls, decorated tiles etc, but is best known for its ornamental earthenware—much decorated to patterns by Joyce Morgan—and for its animal models and miniature human figures modelled by Frank Spindler and others.

Chessell Pottery

1978–Active 1981

A studio pottery established by John and Sheila Francis in 1978 at Chessell, near Yarmouth, Isle- of-Wight. The Francis’ established the pottery following their return from lecturing in ceramics at institutions in East and West Africa. Their individual hand-made pottery drew its inspiration from natural objects and typical forms were ‘pebble’ vases and coral encrusted ornamental wares. An advertisement in Tableware International in February 1981 (Vol 11, page 127) illustrates attractive handmade ornamental vases. The pottery used a broad script ‘CP’ monograph mark enclosed in a circle.

Christie & Beardmore

1902–1903

Earthenware manufacturer at the Sutherland Pottery, Fenton. The business subsequently traded as F. Beardmore & Co.

Chrome Pottery

c.1921–c.1927

A studio Pottery established by Ethel M. Fitt, at Church St, Lowestoft in about 1921. The Chrome Pottery produced tableware and fancy pottery. The pottery’s mark was a printed circular seal with a central fishing boat and the name ‘Chrome Pottery’ within the seal.

Churchill China Ltd

1974–1992

Churchill China Ltd was established in 1974 as a subsidiary company of the Roper family’s James Broadhurst & Sons Ltd business. The company operated at the Crown Clarence Works, Longton (purchased by Broadhurst in either 1974 or 1976), as a specialist manufacturer of mugs. Churchill China Ltd was the first use of the Churchill name that was later to be adopted as the umbrella for the Roper controlled companies. In 1992 Churchill China Ltd was renamed Crown Clarence Ltd as part of the reorganization of the group into a public limited company, Churchill Group plc. See the entry for Churchill Group plc

Churchill Tableware Ltd

1984–1994?

Holding company for the businesses owned and run as part of the Churchill Group. Formerly James Broadhurst & Sons Ltd. As part of the reorganization of the Roper family’s pottery interests in 1984, the parent company James Broadhurst & Sons Ltd was renamed Churchill Tableware Ltd. Subsidiary companies of the group at the time included Churchill China Ltd, Churchill Hotelware Ltd (formerly Sampson Bridgwood & Son Ltd), W. Moorcroft Ltd (sold in 1986), Wessex Ceramics Ltd (formed in 1979), Stratford Bone China Ltd and Staffordshire Crystal.

The Churchill Group’s operations were reorganized in 1989 with Mr. Peter Roper relinquishing the position of Chairman, and becoming President of the Group a position he held until his death in 1991. In 1992 the ‘Churchill China’ name was registered and in 1994 the Group was listed on the London Stock Exchange as Churchill China plc. See the entries for Broadhurst (James Broadhurst & Sons Ltd) and for Churchill China plc.

Churchill Hotelware Ltd

1984–?

Manufacturer of hotelware and general earthenware at the Anchor Works, Longton. Formerly Sampson Bridgwood & Son Ltd. Sampson Bridgwood & Son Ltd had been acquired by the Roper family’s James Broadhurst & Sons Ltd in 1965. The Sampson Bridgwood name was preserved and the now subsidiary company continued the Bridgwood hotelware and general earthenware business until the reorganization of the group in 1984. At that point, the Sampson Bridgwood & Son Ltd business was renamed Churchill Hotelware Ltd and became a subsidiary of Churchill Tableware Ltd, the new holding company for the Churchill Group.

Churchill China plc

1994–Active 2009

Manufacturer of earthenware and bone china at the Marlborough Works, High St, Tunstall and at other sites in the potteries. Formerly Churchill Tableware Ltd, Churchill China plc is the current holding company for the Churchill Group. The ‘Churchill’ name was introduced in 1974 when Churchill China Ltd was formed by the Roper family as a subsidiary of James Broadhurst & Sons Ltd.

In 1984 use of the Churchill name was extended with the parent company James Broadhurst & Sons Ltd renamed Churchill Tableware Ltd and Sampson Bridgwood & Son Ltd becoming Churchill Hotelware Ltd. In 1992 there was a further reorganization of the business with the general adoption of the ‘Churchill China name, followed in 1994 by the group’s listing as a public company, Churchill China plc, on the London Stock Exchange.

In 1995 Churchill acquired Crownford Holdings Ltd (the holding company for Elizabethan Fine Bone China Ltd, Taylor and Kent Ltd and Rosina China Ltd). Further additions to the company’s brands have included Wren Giftware, acquired from Denby Pottery Co. Ltd in 1998 but subsequently sold, and James Sadler & Son the famous maker of teapots acquired in March 2000. Churchill is now one of the world’s major manufacturers and distributors of high quality tableware, operating from four manufacturing plant in Stoke-on-Trent. The company is still controlled by the Roper family.

In addition to the Churchill name, trade names have included ‘Queen’s’ dinnerware and ‘Sadler’ teapots. Current (2009) brands include Churchill Super Vitrified hotel and catering ware, Alchemy fine tableware and Art de Cuisine fashion tableware. The Churchill mark is a lion’s head on a circular seal.

Cinque Port(s) Pottery (Ltd)

1957–Active 2005?

Earthenware manufacturer at The Monastery, Conduit Hill, Rye, Sussex. The Cinque Port Pottery was established by David Sharp and George Grey at ‘The Mint’, Rye, in 1957 to manufacture art pottery designed by David Sharp. The business prospered and was incorporated as the Cinque Ports Pottery Ltd in the early-1960s. The partners separated in 1964. George Grey took the Cinque Ports name to a new factory at ‘The Monastery’ where he began the manufacture of domestic earthenware. The business was sold in the 1980s, but has continued in operation using the names Cinque Ports Pottery and Cinque Ports Ltd. Products of the Cinque Ports Pottery Ltd (in the 1970s under George Grey) include flower jugs, vases, coffee sets, tankards, lamp bases, and souvenir wares. See the entry for Sharp (David Sharp Pottery).

Circle Pottery Co.

1936–1938

Earthenware manufacturer at the Crown Pottery, Mill St, Stoke. The Circle Pottery produced tableware. The mark includes the company name.

Clare China Co. Ltd

1951–?

Decorators, and possibly manufacturers of bone china at the Ruby Works, Longton. Clare China Co. Ltd produced good quality teaware with mainly floral decoration typical of the 1950s and 1960s. Wares are marked ‘CLARE’ surmounted by a simple crown.

Clarice Cliff

1899–1972

Pottery modeller, designer and decorator active c.1928-1939. See the entry for the Newport Pottery Co. Ltd

Clarke (Alan Clarke Studio Limited)

2003–Active 2009

Manufacturer of art pottery and limited edition ceramics at Stoke-on-Trent. Alan Clarke was previously a designer and artist at Poole Pottery and was responsible for well know Poole designs such as ‘The Planets’. Alan Clarke’s studio productions are usually limited editions in brilliant colours and characteristic designs, often hand decorated by Clarke himself. There is already an active collector market.

Clarke (Kenneth Clarke Pottery)

Active 1960s

Kenneth Clarke, an industrial designer founded his studio Pottery in Clipstone St, Tottenham Court, London in the mid-1950s. The business produced architectural ceramics and art pottery. Kenneth Clarke designed and manufactured tiles for use in housing and commercial premises using contemporary motifs and designs.

Clayburn Studio Pottery Ltd

c.1953–post 1957

A studio pottery established at Milner St, Hanley, in about 1953. The proprietors of Clayburn were Mr William Lunt, Mr Harry Edgerton and Mr Roy Midwinter. The Pottery was established to manufacture ornamental wares and lamp bases in a high-temperature-fired hard paste porcelain using shapes and decorations inspired by historical Chinese originals. In practice, the Clayburn Pottery produced ornamental earthenware decorated in contemporary 1950s style. Well known Midwinter designer Jessie Tate produced many designs for the company and they were marketed through the showrooms of W. R. Midwinter & Son Ltd.

Clayton Bone China (Ltd)

1958–1962

Manufacturer of bone china fancy wares at the St. Georges Works, Clayton St, Longton. Clayton Bone China was established in 1958 by William Henry Amison and Mr W. E. Vickers. William Amison had been a production manager at Collingwood China Ltd at the St. Georges Works prior to its closure in 1958 and W. E. Vickers had been the managing director of the Dresden Floral Porcelain Co. Clayton Bone China produced floral china, bone china jewellery, posy holders, animal models and similar fancies in bone china.

Clementson Bros. (Ltd)

1865–1916

Earthenware manufacturer at the Phoenix Works and the Bell Works, Hanley.

Clermont Fine China Ltd

1975–1981

Maker of fine art ceramics at Howsell Rd, Malvern, Herefordshire. Clermont was founded by ceramic artists Ray and Silvia Poole and ceramicist Alan Hawkins in October 1975 to produce limited edition models for the collectors’ market. Mr Poole had previously been a ceramic painter at Royal Worcester and then with Boehm of Malvern. Clermont specialised in limited edition models of canine, bird and wildlife subjects, and also produced figurines, plaques and hand painted vases. Clermont went into liquidation in 1981 and the business was purchased by Riverart Ltd, another Malvern fine art ceramics studio. The new business traded as Clermont Fine China (Riverart) Ltd.

Clermont Fine China (Riverart) Ltd

1981–?

Maker of fine art ceramics at Howsell Rd, Malvern, Herefordshire. See entry for Clermont Fine China Ltd.

Clews (George Clews & Co. (Ltd))

1906-1961

Earthenware manufacturer, initially at the Progressive Works, Burslem, and from 1908, at the Brownhills Pottery, Tunstall. Although named after George Clews, the firm appears to have been run as a partnership between his son Percy Swinnerton Clews and others parties. Clews were designated as a nucleus firm in 1941 and continued production during the Second World War. Percy Clews died in 1942 and management (and probably ownership) of the firm passed to Hubert Alan Brown. Under his management the pottery was extensively modernised between 1946 and 1952, but despite the modernisation and the post-War economic boom, the business failed in May 1961 and its assets were liquidated.

George Clews & Co. Ltd was an important manufacturer of domestic earthenware, especially teapots. Hand painted ornamental art wares were produced under the ‘Chameleon Ware’ name in the 1930s and these are regarded as collectible.

Clokie & Co. (Ltd)

1888–1961 (Inc. 1940)

Earthenware manufacturer at Castleford, Leeds, Yorkshire. Hugh McDowell Clokie founded Clokie & Co. in 1871, assuming control of an existing Castleford pottery in which he had been a partner. The business changed hands in 1903 and again in 1939 when it was purchased by the Pike family who had managed the business on behalf of its various owners since about 1909. The company was the last pottery to operate at Castleford, finally closing in August 1961 due to labour shortages. Clokie was primarily a manufacturer of teapots, but also produced dinner and teawares, and general earthenware.

Clough (Alfred Clough (Ltd))

1935–1978

Manufacturer of earthenware and china at numerous addresses in and around Stoke-on-Trent. Alfred Clough began business in about 1905 as a pottery factor and wholesaler. His activities soon extended to decoration of plain wares and then to small scale earthenware production from about 1913. In 1928 Clough purchased the St Louis Works, Longton and the wholesaling and decorating business moved to the new address, while small-scale pottery manufacture continued elsewhere. A private company, Alfred Clough Ltd, was registered in 1935. The Royal Art Pottery situated in Barford St, Longton was purchased in 1937 and established as a separate business know by the unwieldy name of Alfred Clough Ltd, Royal Art Pottery.

The original business, Alfred Clough Ltd, became a public company listed on the stock exchange in January 1954 and this provided the financial impetus for the acquisition of the well known china manufacturers Cartwright & Edwards Ltd (in 1955); Barker Bros Ltd and its subsidiary Sampson Smith Ltd (1956); and W. H. Grindley & Co. Ltd (1960). All of these businesses continued to trade under their own names as members of the ‘Alfred Clough Group’. In 1961 the name of the Royal Art Pottery, Alfred Clough Ltd, was changed to Clough’s Royal Art Pottery. In 1972 a controlling shareholding in Alfred Clough Ltd was acquired by Major E. H Marley, a senior executive of Staffordshire Potteries (Holdings) Ltd and under his management Clough acquired, in 1973, Hostess Tableware Ltd from Thomas Poole and Gladstone China Ltd adding the British Anchor Pottery Co. Ltd and Royal Stafford China Ltd businesses to the Clough Group. The Clough Group became part of Newman Industries Ltd (of Bristol) in 1976 and in 1978 the name of the group was changed to Grindley of Stoke (Ceramics) Ltd.

Alfred Clough Ltd apparently did not manufacture under its own name, and there no known ‘Alfred Clough’ marks. For further information see the entries for Grindley of Stoke (Ceramics) Ltd, Federated Potteries Co. Ltd, and the individual Clough subsidiaries.

Clough’s Royal Art Pottery

1961–1969

Earthenware manufacturer at Barford St, Longton. Previously styled Alfred Clough Ltd, Royal Art Pottery. The Royal Art Pottery closed in June 1969 and production of the Royal Art Pottery wares transferred to other businesses within the Clough Group. See the entry for Clough (Alfred Clough (Ltd)).

Clyde Pottery Co. Ltd

c.1815–1903

Earthenware manufacturer at Greenock, Scotland. Clyde Pottery Co. produced transfer printed earthenware for the domestic market.

Coalbrook Potteries

1937–Active 1950s

Manufacturer of hand-made bone china floral jewellery at the Cleveland Works, Victoria Rd, Shelton. The company was active in the mid-1950s. A seal with the name ‘Coalbrook’ was used as the company’s trade mark.

Coalport China Co. (John Rose & Co.) Ltd

1889–1951

Bone china manufacturer at Coalport, Shropshire (to 1926), and then at various locations in Staffordshire. In 1855 the Coalport pottery business trading as John Rose & Co. was acquired by the Bruff family. Mr Peter Bruff incorporated the business in about 1899 adopting the name Coalport China Co. (John Rose & Co.) Ltd thus maintaining the link to the original name. The Bruff family continued to run the business until it was purchased by Cauldon Potteries Ltd in 1924.

Cauldon continued the Coalport business as a separate concern, but in 1926 moved china manufacture from Shropshire to its Cauldon Place works in Shelton, Staffordshire. By 1932, Cauldon Potteries Ltd was in the hands of a receiver and the Coalport name and assets (with many other Cauldon companies), were acquired by Harrison & Son (Hanley) Ltd, suppliers of pigments and glazes for the pottery industry. Harrison & Son, under its chairman, Mr Sydney Thomas Harrison and his son Mr Thomas Stanley Harrison already owned George Jones & Sons Ltd (acquired in 1933) and in 1935 the Coalport and other ‘Cauldon’ businesses were moved from Cauldon Place to the Crescent Pottery of George Jones & Sons Ltd, in South Wolfe St, Stoke. The identity of the individual businesses was maintained and in 1947 the ownership of the various ‘George Jones Group’ companies, including Coalport was transferred from the family business to the Harrisons themselves. Stanley Harrison became chairman and managing director of Coalport and in 1951 the name was changed to the simpler Coalport China Ltd.

In the 20th century, Coalport was primarily a manufacturer of bone china tableware and fancy china, but production of richly decorated wares continued up until at least the 1930s. Coalport marks traditionally include a small crown and the Coalport name. For the later history of the company, see the entry for Coalport China Ltd.

Coalport China Ltd

1951-1967

Manufacturer of bone china at the Crescent Pottery, South Wolfe St, Stoke (1951 to 1958) and then at various other location in the potteries. Formerly Coalport China Co. (John Rose & Co.) Ltd. Sydney and Stanley Harrison acquired ‘Coalport’ in 1947 as part of their purchase (from their family company Harrison & Son (Hanley) Ltd) of the ‘George Jones Group’. In 1951 the group was reorganised with the phasing out of George Jones ‘Crescent China’ and the adoption of the new name Coalport China Ltd name for the flagship Coalport business. Although modernised in the late-1940s, the large Crescent Pottery proved uneconomic and in 1955 Sydney Harrison purchased the factory of Samuel Radford in High St, Fenton with the intent of moving Coalport to the smaller and more manageable site. The transfer did not take place and in mid-1958 the Coalport business ceased operations and the staff were dismissed.

In October 1958 the Coalport share capital was purchased by E. Brain & Co. Ltd and under the new management production of traditional Coalport wares recommenced. Coalport continued manufacture at the Crescent Works until 1960 when production moved to the specially modernised Cleveland Works in London Rd, Stoke. In early 1963, E. Brain & Co. Ltd announced the cessation of manufacture of the company’s Foley China brand and the extension of Coalport production to the company’s Foley China Works. From this date the E. Brain & Co. Ltd business traded under the name of its subsidiary Coalport China Ltd.

In 1967 Josiah Wedgwood & Sons Ltd acquired the share capital of E. Brain & Co. Ltd, including the Coalport subsidiary, for the sum of £260,000. Wedgwood has continued the Coalport name as one of its core brands and in 1985 the production of ‘Coalport’ branded wares was moved to the Minerva Works in Park St, Fenton. There was a further move in 2000 to the main Wedgwood factory at Barlaston. The Coalport name has continued to be used as a premier Wedgwood brand to the present.

Cobham Pottery

1947–1950s?

A studio pottery established in 1947 at Cobham, Surrey, by Douglas Zadek. The pottery operated until at least the mid-1950s.

Cobridge Stoneware plc

1998–Closed August 2005

Cobridge Stoneware was a manufacturer of art pottery at the Phoenix Works, Nile St, Cobridge. The business was an initiative of Hugh Edwards the owner of Moorcroft and operated from August 1998 as a subsidiary of Moorcroft plc and in premises adjacent to the Moorcroft factory. Edwards’ concept was to create art pottery in the style of the Arts & Crafts and Art Nouveau movements of the early 20th century. The business made handcrafted, highly decorated stoneware including vases, lamp bases, humorous figures, industrial landscapes and giftware. In addition to ornamental wares, the pottery manufactured grotesque animal and bird models designed by Andrew Hull. The business was unprofitable and was closed in August 2005.

Cochran & Fleming

1896–1920

Earthenware and stoneware manufacturer at the Britannia Pottery, St Rollox, Glasgow. Robert Cochran established the Britannia Pottery at St Rollox, Glasgow, in about 1857. Cochran died in 1869 and the business was continued by his son, Alexander Cochran, until 1896 when he entered a partnership with J. Arnold Fleming. The name Cochran & Fleming was used from 1896 until 1920 when the business became the Britannia Pottery Co. Ltd. Cochran & Fleming were large-scale manufacturers of hard-wearing, blue & white, underglaze printed, ironstone china and granite ware for export to North America. More delicate wares in an ivory semi-porcelain body were made from the 1890s under the trade name ‘Scotch Ivory’. Marks include the initials ‘C & F’ or ‘C & F G’, and in some case the figure of Britannia. See also the entry for the Britannia Pottery Co. Ltd.

Colclough & Co.

1887–1928

Manufacturer of porcelain and earthenware at the Stanley Pottery, Longton. Control of the business was acquired by Thomas C. Wild & Sons (pre-1923) and the company traded under its own name as part of the Wild group of companies until sold in 1928. The new owners, a Mr and Mrs Vernon of Burslem, changed the style to Stanley Potteries Ltd, but the firm failed to survive the effects of the Great Depression and it closed in 1931. The Colclough & Co. domestic wares are unexceptional, however, in the early 1900s the company produced some notable art pottery under the trade name ‘Jacobean Ware’. These tube-lined art nouveau ornamental wares were similar in style and decoration to the Moorcroft ornamental wares and are rarely seen. (The name ‘Jacobean Ware’ was also used by J & G Meakin Ltd in the 1930s). The more common Colclough & Co. trade name was that of ‘Royal Stanley Ware’ and this name appears in most marks.

Colclough (H. J. Colclough)

1897–1937

Manufacturer of china, earthenware and majolica at the Vale Works, Goddard St, Longton from c.1907 and at other locations in the Potteries. H. J. (Herbert Joseph) Colclough founded his pottery business in about 1897 and moved to the Vale Works in about 1907. The Pottery received a royal license following a visit by King George IV and Queen Mary in 1913 and ‘Royal Vale’ became an important trade name used for over fifty years. The businesses of H. J. Colclough, Thomas Morris, and Osborne China Co. Ltd were combined in 1937 and the new business was incorporated under the name Colclough China Ltd.

The Colclough ware catered for conventional tastes with traditional shapes and patterns. Best known is the bone china teaware and some attractive, but restrained art deco wares were produced during the 1930s. H. J Colclough introduced the well known ‘Colclough’, ‘Vale’ and ‘Royal Vale’ trade names that were also used by the succeeding businesses. Marks include the name ‘Colclough’ and/or the ‘Vale’ trade name. For further information see the entry for Colclough China Ltd.

Colclough China Ltd

1937–1948

Manufacturer of bone china and earthenware at the Vale Works, Longton. Formerly Herbert J. Colclough. Colclough China Ltd was formed in 1937 by Herbert J. Colclough and E. B. Shaw from the merger of the businesses of H. J. Colclough, Thomas Morris and the Osborne China Co. Mr J. E. Leak became a director in 1941 and from 1944 was the managing director. The business was acquired by Booths Ltd (a member of the Pearson Group) in 1944 and from mid-1945 the two firms operated co-operatively until formally amalgamating as Booths and Colcloughs Ltd in 1948.

Colclough China Ltd was a mass producer of bone china tea sets, in contemporary, but conservative styles. The company continued to use the well known ‘Colclough’, ‘Vale’ and ‘Royal Vale’ trade names of its predecessor and these names appear in the company’s marks. The Colclough name was used by successor companies well into the 1970s. See the entry for Booths & Colcloughs Ltd for further information.

Coldstone Kiln

1953–?

A studio pottery established by Christopher Harries in 1953 at Ascott-under-Wychwood, Oxfordshire. Harries produced ornamental and domestic earthenware including vases, mugs and coffee sets. The Coldstone mark was an impressed ‘COLDSTONE’.

Colley (Alfred Colley & Co. Ltd)

1909–1914

Earthenware manufacturer at the Gordon Pottery, Tunstall.

Collingwood Bros Ltd

1887–1948

Manufacturer of bone china at the Crown Pottery, Longton, and from c.1919 at the St. Georges Works, Longton. The business was concentrated with that of Thomas Forester & Sons Ltd at the Imperial Works, Longton in 1941. It appears that Collingwood Bros Ltd did not re-open at the end of the Second World War and the dormant business was acquired by Arthur Wood & Son (Longport) Ltd in the immediate post-war period, and from March 1948 it traded as Collingwood China Ltd. Collingwood Bros manufactured good quality bone china teawares in conventional styles and patterns. Marks include the Collingwood name. See the following entry for Collingwood China Ltd.

Collingwood China Ltd.

1948–1957?

Manufacturer of bone china at the St. Georges Works, Longton. Formerly Collingwood Bros Ltd. The business was sold by its owner Arthur Wood & Son (Longton) Ltd to the Keele St Pottery Group in the early 1950s. There is no record of the business moving to the Keele Street Group/Staffordshire Potteries Ltd Meir Airport site with other members of the group in the late-1950s, however, a 1962 article refers to Collingwood China as a ‘non-manufacturing unit’ of Staffordshire Potteries Ltd. The St Georges Works were taken over by William Henry Amison, a former Collingwood employee, when he established the Clayton Bone China Co. in 1957 or 1958 and it is possible that Collingwood China Ltd ceased production at this date.

Coloroll Biltons

1986–1990

A name used for the Biltons earthenware business following its purchase in July 1986 by the Coloroll Group. See the following entry for Coloroll Ceramics Division.

Coloroll Ceramics Division

1986–1990

Coloroll Housewares, a north of England homewares retailer, entered the pottery industry through the purchase of Staffordshire Potteries Ltd and Biltons Tableware Ltd in July 1986. In the following year (1987) Coloroll acquired Cartwright and Edwards Ltd, Royal Winton, and Denby Tableware Ltd. Together, these five companies formed the Coloroll Ceramics Division, but each continued to trade under their own names.

Coloroll was placed in receivership in 1990 and the managements of the various companies purchased the assets and continued their businesses. In the case of Staffordshire Potteries Ltd and Biltons Tableware Ltd the managements combined to form a new company Staffordshire Tableware Ltd. For further information see the entries for the various companies.

Compton Potteries Ltd

1890s–1956

Earthenware manufacturer at Compton, Guilford, Surrey. The Compton Pottery began as an evening class run by Mary Seton Watts, wife of the Victorian painter George Frederic Watts at their home in the village of Compton, Surrey. Watts established a Potters Arts Guild in about 1900 and the cottage industry thrived manufacturing ornamental wares, terracotta panels and garden pots from local red clay. The designs and decoration were strongly influenced by the Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau movements and the products were sold locally and through fashionable outlets such as Liberty & Co. At some point the business became Compton Potteries Ltd and moved to premises in Grayshott. The business closed in 1956, but was continued by one of the directors, Mr I. A. Tippetts, as Surrey Ceramics Co. producing the same wares. See the entries for Surrey Ceramics Co. and for the Grayshott Pottery.

Conderton Pottery

1985–?

A studio pottery established in 1985 at Conderton, Wiltshire, by Toff Milway.

Cone (Thomas Cone (Ltd))

Cone (Thomas Cone (Longton) Ltd)

(1892–c.1920), c.1920–Post-1963

Earthenware manufacturer at the Alma Works, Longton. Formerly Thomas Cone Ltd (1892–c.1920), control of the business was acquired by Thomas C. Wild & Sons (probably in about 1920) and it was re-named Thomas Cone (Longton) Ltd. The company traded as part of the Wild group of companies until the Works were closed in 1941 under the wartime Concentration scheme. In early 1946 Wild sold the dormant business to a Mr R. J. Rose, who re-opened the Works and commenced production of earthenware tableware under the name ‘Thomas Cone’. The fate of the latter business is unknown.

The business was subsequently (1947-49?) acquired by Charles G. Bowers and traded as Thomas Cone Ltd, initially as part of the Keele St Pottery Group (to 1950) and then as part of Staffordshire Potteries (Holdings) Ltd. The company moved to the Staffordshire Potteries Meir Airport site in 1963 and Thomas Cone Ltd subsequently operated as a production unit of Staffordshire Potteries (Holdings), Ltd specialising in production of flatware. Pre-1941 the Thomas Cone business specialised in low-priced, moderate quality teawares using the ‘Alma Ware’ and ‘Royal Alma’ trade names. From the mid-1930s marks contain a crown and the ‘Alma Ware’ or ‘Royal Alma Ware’ trade name rather than the company name.

Connoisseur Ltd

1979–Active 1986

An art ceramics studio established by Terence and Diane Lewis and Richard Barton in October 1979 at Malvern Wells, Herefordshire. Later (c.1986) operating at Ledbury, Herefordshire. Connoisseur Ltd, also known as Connoisseur of Malvern, produced limited edition bone china ceramic sculptures aimed at the sophisticated collectors’ market. Mr Lewis was formerly associated with Royal Worcester and then with Bohem of Malvern, and Connoisseur produced similar products, although primarily for the UK market. Models were produced to the highest standards of craftsmanship and featured mainly subjects from nature including flowers (especially roses), butterflies, birds and wild animals. Equestrian models and figures from ballet and mythology were also made. Most models were made as limited editions with most productions limited to less than 100 and in some cases as low as 10. The business was still active in 1986.

Conway Pottery Co. Ltd

1930–1963

Earthenware manufacturer at Fenton. The business was acquired by the Keele St Pottery Group between 1947 and 1949, but continued to operate under its own name as part of the Keele St Group until closed in 1963. The company made teaware and, as part of the Keele Street Pottery Group, mass produced low-priced tea cups.

Coopers Art Pottery Co.

Cooper & Co.

Coopers (Anchor Pottery) Ltd

(1912–1930, 1930–1936), 1936–1958

Earthenware manufacturer at the Anchor Works, Hanley. Formerly the Art Pottery Co. (1900-1911). The business traded successively as Coopers Art Pottery Co., Cooper & Co., and as Coopers (Anchor Pottery) Ltd from 1936 to 1958.

Cooper (J. Cooper & Co.)

1922–1925

Earthenware manufacturer at the Ducal Works, Burslem.

Cooper (Malcolm Cooper)

Active 1980s

Manufacturer of cottage models. Malcolm Cooper’s ‘Great British Pubs’ series of miniature building models is his best known work made for John Hine Ltd in the 1980s.

Cooper (Susie Cooper)

1902-1995

Pottery decorator (c.1922-1929), subsequently an important designer, decorator and manufacturer of earthenware and bone china. See the following entries for details of the Susie Cooper companies and products.

Cooper (Susie Cooper Pottery Ltd)

c.1929 (1937)–1964

Susie Cooper left A. E. Gray & Co. Ltd where she had been a decorator and designer in October 1929 to establish an independent pottery business. She initially rented space at the George St Pottery, Tunstall and, after its closure, at the Chelsea Works, Burslem. During this period the business decorated bought-in wares only.

In 1931 at Harry Wood’s invitation, Susie Cooper moved her design and decorating studio to the Wood & Sons Ltd Crown Works, Newcastle St, Burslem, operating as the ‘Susie Cooper Pottery’. The business became, to all intents and purposes, an associate or subsidiary of Wood & Sons, Ltd (it may have been purchased by Wood & Sons Ltd in 1933) and, in October 1937, a notice in the Pottery Gazette announced that the name of one of Wood & Sons subsidiary companies, Bursley Ltd, had been officially changed to that of Susie Cooper Pottery Ltd. As part of the transaction Susie Cooper became a part-owner and director of the Crown Works. The Crown Works were closed following a fire in May 1942 and did not re-opened in May 1945 although rebuilding still continued for several years. The Crown Works were purchased from Wood & Sons Ltd in 1959 and refurbished as the base for Susie Cooper’s earthenware business. From c.1950, however, the new focus was on bone china and the last earthenware pattern (2429) was registered in July 1964. Production of earthenware ceased shortly afterward. The Crown Works remained the base for Susie Cooper’s design studio until the Works were closed by Wedgwood in 1980.

The Susie Cooper earthenware produced between the early 1930s and 1964 includes wall masks, figures, art pottery and decorator items, but best known are the collectable tableware decorated using freehand painting, banding, sgraffito, lithography, and aerography. Tableware shapes include the famous Kestrel (introduced in 1932 and still in production in 1964) Curlew (1932), Rex (a re-modelled Woods shape produced in the mid-1930s), Falcon (1937), and others. Patterns of the early 1930s echo those developed at Grays – bold floral motifs, banding and geometric designs. By the mid-1930s the decoration had changed from the vivid geometric to more subtle floral and banded decoration. The multicolour lithographic patterns ‘Patricia Rose’ and ‘Dresden Spray’ are the best know floral patterns and these were produced, with many variations from the 1930s to the 1960s. In 1987, to celebrate a retrospective exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum, Wedgwood re-introduced three Kestrel breakfast sets in re-worked versions of the 1930s patterns Yellow Daisy, Spiral Fern and Polka Dot.

The common Susie Cooper mark found on earthenware is the famous ‘leaping deer’ printed in brown (most commonly), green, pink, blue or black. The words ‘A Susie Cooper Production’ and ‘Crown Works, Burslem’ are usually present and many wares include a shape and or pattern number. A number cast into the earthenware body is the year of manufacture. Other earthenware marks include script signatures and the rare early triangular rubber stamp used before the move to the Crown Work. For the history of the Susie Cooper bone china wares see the following entry.

Cooper (Susie Cooper China Ltd)

1950 – 1958

Bone china manufacturer at the Jason Works, Longton and at Bagnall Rd, Longton. Subsequently Susie Cooper Ltd. Susie Cooper purchased the Jason China Co. in 1950 to initiate production of bone china under the new business name of Susie Cooper China Ltd. The venture into bone china was immediately successful and in 1951 the New Chelsea Porcelain Co. Ltd was purchased from the Plant family and renamed the New Chelsea China Co. Ltd. In November 1958 the Susie Cooper companies merged with R. H. & S. L. Plant Ltd to form the Tuscan Holdings Group Ltd. As part of the merger, the Susie Cooper companies were renamed Susie Cooper Ltd, the Jason factory and New Chelsea business were sold, and china production was transferred to Plant’s Tuscan Works although the identity of the individual companies was maintained for marketing purposes.

In 1966 Wedgwood purchased Tuscan Holding Group Ltd and the Susie Cooper businesses were absorbed into the Wedgwood Group. Susie Cooper continued as a designer for Wedgwood (and, until 1972, as a director of Susie Cooper Ltd within the Wedgwood group). In 1980 Wedgwood closed the Crown Works and the Susie Cooper design studio moved to the factory of Wedgwood’s William Adams & Sons Ltd. Susie Cooper left Wedgwood in 1985.

Susie Cooper bone china shapes include Quail (1951), the iconic ‘Can’ shape introduced in 1958, and the Flute and Scallop shapes. Post- the 1966 acquisition, Wedgwood continued to produce a range of Susie Cooper bone china shapes and designs and Susie Cooper continued to design for the Wedgwood group. Best known patterns from this period are the notable Cornpoppy, Carnaby Daisy, Keystone, Diablo and Harlequinade, patterns produced on the ‘Can’ shape coffee wares and matching tableware.

The basic bone china mark is a ‘Susie Cooper’ script signature over a star and the words ‘Bone China’ and ‘England’. Post-1966 wares carry a reference to the Wedgwood Group and may include the Wedgwood Portland Vase mark in addition to a reference to Susie Cooper Design. Susie Cooper branded wares were produced by Wedgwood into the 1980s.

Cooper (Susie Cooper Ltd)

1958 – 1966 (post-1966 as part of the Wedgwood Group)

Manufacturer of earthenware and bone china as part of the Tuscan Holdings Group Ltd. See the entries for Cooper (Susie Cooper China Ltd) and Tuscan Holdings Group Ltd.

Cooper Pottery (Ltd?)

1968–?

A studio Pottery established in 1968 by David and Sue Cooper at Scholar Green, Stoke-on-Trent and later also at Market Drayton, Shropshire. The Cooper Pottery produced hand-thrown earthenware and stoneware designed by Sue Cooper. Products included animal figurines, vases, bowls, coffee sets, miniature buildings, lamp bases and garden pottery. The grotesque animal money banks designed by Sue Cooper are the best known of the pottery’s wares.

Co-operative Wholesale Society Ltd

1911–1971

The Co-operative Wholesale Society Ltd (the ‘Co-op’ or CWS) was an important manufacturer and wholesaler of a wide range of homewares distributed primarily through a United Kingdom network of local co-operative stores. CWS was a manufacturer of bone china at the Windsor Pottery, Longton, and of earthenware and stoneware at the Crown Clarence Pottery, Longton. The two factories appear to have traded as separate businesses distinguished by the words ‘Bone China’ or ‘Earthenware’ attached to the company name. See the separate entries, below, for the histories of the two factories.

Co-operative Wholesale Society Ltd (Bone China)

1911–1971

Bone china manufacturer at the Windsor Pottery, Longton. Bone china was manufactured at the Windsor Pottery, Longton from 1911 until the business was sold to Hammersley & Co. (Longton) Ltd in mid-1971. The CWS factory produced good quality mid-range tableware in generally conservative shapes and patterns under the ‘Windsor’ and ‘Clarence China’ names. The marks use the trade names and there is no reference to the Co-operative Wholesale Society.

Co-operative Wholesale Society Ltd (Earthenware)

1940 (1946)–1970

Earthenware manufacturer at the Crown Clarence Works, King St, Longton. The CWS acquired the lease to the Crown Clarence Works, previously occupied by Bradleys (Longton) Ltd, in 1940, but due to war time restrictions earthenware production did not commence until 1946. In 1968 Jon Anton Ltd was appointed sole distributor for the wares produced at both the Crown Clarence Works and the Windsor Pottery and in January 1970 they acquired the Crown Clarence earthenware business from CWS as a going concern. CWS used the business to manufacture good quality mid-range tableware and other domestic earthenware for distribution through its stores under the trade names ‘Crown Clarence’ and ‘Balmoral’. The CWS mark does not reference the Co-operative Society movement, but uses ‘Crown Clarence’ as the business name.

Cope (J. H. Cope & Co. (Ltd))

1887–1947

Manufacturer of bone china at the Wellington Works, Longton. Cope produced mid-market bone china tableware using the Wellington China trade name.

Copeland (W. T. Copeland (& Sons (Ltd)))

1847–1970 (Inc. 1932)

Manufacturer of bone china, earthenware and Parian at the Spode Works, Church St, Stoke-on-Trent. William Copeland and Thomas Garrett formed a partnership in 1833 to continue the business established by Josiah Spode. Garrett retired in 1847 and William Taylor Copeland continued the business in his own right until his retirement in 1867. Copeland’s four sons William, Edward, Alfred and Richard Copeland were admitted to the business in the same year and it then traded as W. T. Copeland & Sons. Management of the business fell to Richard Pirie Copeland and, on his death, to his son Ronald Copeland.

In 1932 Copeland acquired bone china manufacturer Jackson & Gosling Ltd through a friendly merger. The enlarged company was incorporated as W. T. Copeland & Sons Ltd, and A. E. Hewitt, the former owner of Jackson & Gosling Ltd joined Ronald and A. Gresham Copeland as directors of the new company. In 1966, the Copeland family sold out and the business was acquired by the Carborundum Co. Ltd, the UK arm of the Carborundum Corporation of the USA. The new owners reverted to the original Spode Ltd name in 1970.

In the 20th century, W. T. Copeland & Sons Ltd was an important manufacturer of high quality bone china tea and tableware and ornamental china. The company was a member of the Fine China Association and its products, aimed at the top of the market, matched those of Aynsley, Shelley and other fine china manufacturers. Copeland was well aware of the value of the Spode name and used it many of the company’s marks. The name ‘Copeland’ also appears. For information on the later history of the company see the entry for Spode Ltd.

Cork Art Pottery Ltd

1980–1983

Earthenware and stoneware manufacturer at Carrigaline, County Cork, Ireland. Cork Art Pottery Ltd, owned by German pottery entrepreneur Mr Lutz Kiel, acquired the assets of Carrigaline Pottery Co. Ltd when the latter failed in April 1980. Despite an updating of designs and broadening of the product range to include ornamental earthenware, Cork Art Pottery Ltd failed in 1983. A co-operative, trading as Carrigdoun Pottery Co. Ltd, acquired and continued the business. See the entries for Carrigaline Pottery Co. Ltd and Carrigdhoun Pottery Co. Ltd.

Corn (W. & E. Corn)

1864–1904

Earthenware manufacturer at the Top Bridge Works, Longport, from 1891.

Coronation Pottery Co. (Ltd)

1903–1954

Earthenware manufacturer at Lonsdale St, Stoke.

Cotton (Elijah Cotton (Ltd))

1880–1981?

Earthenware manufacturer at the Nelson Pottery, Nelson Rd, Hanley. Elijah Cotton founded his earthenware business in about 1880, constructing the Nelson Pottery shortly afterward. Cotton died in 1895 and the business was then managed by his sons Edward and Arthur Cotton and then by the latter’s son Nigel Cotton.

The Cotton business was a manufacturer of domestic earthenware for the middle and lower ends of the market. Manufacture of jugs and plain white hospital ware were a speciality of the firm and were its predominant products until the 1930s. Production diversified in the 1930s to include kitchenware and tableware, nursery ware and a range of fancies. The pottery remained in production throughout the Second World War and, post-1945, expanded its product range to include giftware, hotelware, and catering ware. The company was still active in the 1970s.

In the 1930s and 1940s Cotton was one of the major producers of chinz decorated wares. There are some interesting chinz-decorated art deco style tableware from the period and the patterns ‘Black Beauty’ and ‘Green Tulip’ are now sought by collectors. Cotton trade names include ‘Nelson Ware’ and ‘Lord Nelson Ware and these names appear in most marks often with a Nelson’s Column icon. The letters ‘BCM’ appear in many marks, but their meaning is uncertain.

Country Lane Pottery

1980–Active 2006

A studio Pottery established in 1980 at Cockwells, Penzance, by Anthony and Christiane Richards following their closure of the Penderleath Pottery. From c.1996 The Country Lane Pottery has only decorated bought-in wares.

County Potteries plc

?–1989

Owner of the Carlton Ware and James Kent trade names. County Potteries plc acquired Carlton Ware Ltd (from Arthur Wood & Son (Longport) Ltd) and James Kent Ltd (from Fleshpots (UK) Ltd) in 1987. The company was renamed Carlton & Kent in February 1989, but went into receivership shortly afterward. In May 1989 the Carlton Ware name, moulds and the rights to use the Carlton Ware shapes and decorations were purchased from the receiver by John McCluskey, the principal of Grosvenor Ceramic Hardware Ltd. James Kent Ltd was purchased by M. R. Hadida Ltd, owners of Hadida Fine Bone China Ltd, Fenton. Some Carlton Ware branded products were apparently produced at the James Kent factory between 1987 and 1989. For further information see the entries for Carlton Ware Ltd and James Kent Ltd.

Courtyard Pottery (I)

1977–1986

A studio pottery associated with the potter John Gibson.

Courtyard Pottery (II)

c.2003–Active 2009

A studio pottery established by David Ashby at Grassington, Yorkshire in about 2003. David Ashby manufactures wheel-thrown tableware, terra-cotta kitchenware and art ceramics, including his unique ‘word’ bowls and slab-formed vases.

Cranleigh Art Ceramics

c.1968–1971?

A ceramic art studio founded c.1968 by Mr Ricky Lewis to produced figurines and fine art paintings on ceramic plaques. Mr Lewis had previously studied ceramic art at Royal Worcester under the famous artist Harry Davis, and in about 1968 started Cranleigh Art Ceramics producing figurines and plaques painted with traditional landscapes, flowers, fruit and birds. The studio’s work was sold exclusively by Thomas Goode & Co. Ltd of South Audley St, London. It was through Thomas Goode that Lewis became associated with Mrs Edward Marshall Boehm, widow of the American ceramic artist of that name. Together, they founded Boehm of Malvern Ltd in 1971 based on Lewis’ existing Cranleigh Art Ceramics. Mr Lewis left Boehm in July 1974 to established Hereford Fine China Ltd at Ledbury producing similar high quality, limited edition art wares.

Creigiau Pottery

1948–?

A studio Pottery established by Reginald and Jean Southcliffe at Creigiau, Cardiff, South Wales in 1948. The Pottery closed in 1983. Creigiau Pottery produced earthenware tableware, jugs, mugs etc and also traditional Welsh copper lustre ornamental pottery including jugs, vases, bowls and coffee sets.

Creyke (G. M. Creyke & Sons)

1920–1948

Earthenware manufacturer at the Bell Works, Hanley. Creyke was an important manufacturer of teapots and also manufactured tea sets and general earthenware. The business closed in 1948.

Crieff (Thistle) Pottery

1999–Active 2009

Manufacturer of earthenware at The Factory, Muthill Rd, Crieff, Scotland. The Crieff Pottery, also known as the Crieff Thistle Pottery was founded by Joseph Hunter in 1999 to continue production of the characteristic Thistle wares previously produced by the Buchan Pottery. Joseph Hunter worked at the Buchan Pottery from 1981 and, upon the Pottery’s closure in 1999, negotiated an agreement with Buchan’s owners to continue production of their characteristic thistle-decorated ware. The Crieff Pottery currently produces tableware and tea and coffee ware decorated with the well known thistle emblem. Whisky flagons and whisky accessories modeled on the Buchan originals are also important products.

Cripplesease Pottery

1981–2003

A studio Pottery established by James and Dodie Herschel at Cripplesea, Cornwall, in the premises of the former Penderleath Pottery run by Anthony and Christianne Richards. The pottery closed in 2003 when the Herschel’s moved to France.

Crowan Pottery

1946–1962

A studio Pottery established in 1946 at Praze, Cornwall, by Harry and May Scott Davis. The pottery closed in 1962 when the Davis’ moved to New Zealand. The Crowan Pottery produced useful earthenware including tea and coffee ware, bowls and other items

Crown Lynn Potteries Ltd

Crown Lynn Ceramics (UK) Ltd

1971–1985

Bone china manufacturer at the Grafton Works, Marlborough Rd, Longton. Crown Lynn Potteries Ltd, a New Zealand based ceramics company, purchased A. B. Jones & Sons Ltd from its owner Crown House Glass Ltd in 1971. A. B. Jones & Sons Ltd was renamed Crown Lynn Ceramics (UK) Ltd, but traded under its well known ‘Royal Grafton’ trade name. The business was purchased by its management in 1985 and renamed Royal Grafton China Ltd. Crown Lynn Ceramics (UK) Ltd produced bone china tea and tableware using the established and widely known ‘Royal Grafton’ and ‘Marlborough’, trade names also used in the company’s marks. See the entries for A. B. Jones & Sons Ltd and Royal Grafton China Ltd.

Crown China Crafts Ltd

1946–1958

Manufacturer of floral wares in both china and earthenware at the Crown Works, Stoke.

Crown Clarence Porcelain Co.

1932?–

Earthenware manufacturer at the Clarence Works, High St, Longton from c.1932. Bradleys (Longton) Ltd also occupied the Clarence Works from 1922 to 1939.

Crown Clarence

1946–1971

Name used by the Cooperative Wholesale Society Ltd for its earthenware manufacturing business at the Crown Clarence Works. See the entry for Co-operative Wholesale Society Ltd (Earthenware).

Crown Clarence Ltd

1992–?

Subsidiary of the Churchill Group. Formerly Churchill China Ltd. See the entry for Churchill China plc.

Crown Derby

See the entry for Royal Crown Derby Porcelain Co. Ltd.

Crown Devon Ltd

1967 – 1982

A company associated with the assets of the former S. Fielding & Co. Ltd. Crown Devon Ltd was probably formed following the sale of the Fielding name and assets by Reginald Fielding to Mr Donald K. Bailey in 1967. Mr Bailey is recorded as chairman of the companies Crown Devon Ltd, Shorter & Son Ltd, Dalehall Mills Ltd and Baifield Productions Ltd at the time of his death in April 1971.  ‘Crown Devon’, a manufacturer, of Sutherland St, Stoke-on-Trent advertised Penguin Playtime nursery tableware in an advertisement in Tableware International in December 1982 (Vol 12, page 14). The company is believed to have closed shortly afterward as the Crown Devon Pottery and other assets were purchased by Caverswall China Co. Ltd in May 1983. See also the entry for Fielding (S. Fielding & Co. Ltd).

Crown Dorset Art Pottery

1905 – 1937

A Pottery founded in 1905 by Charles Collard at Poole, Dorset. Charles Collard had worked as an artist-potter at the Aller Vale Art Pottery, but left in 1902 when the business re-focussed on domestic wares. After several years of itinerant potting, Collard acquired the Crown Dorset Pottery at Poole, Dorset. Although successful, Collard sold the business to Charles Paine in 1915 and moved to Ilminster, later to found the Honiton Pottery. Paine continued the Crown Dorset business until it closed in 1937. The Crown Dorset Art Pottery produced, in the main, ‘Torquay’ wares, including slip decorated pots and motto ware. Between 1905 and 1915 Collard gradually introduced his individual artistic shapes and patterns, many harking back to the styles of the Aller Vale wares, and these are now highly sought by collectors.

Crown Figurines (Ltd)

Active 2009

Crown Figurines Ltd of Bridgenorth, Shropshire, are manufacturers of bone china figurines made using the original Crown Devon (S. Fielding & Co. Ltd) moulds. The original Crown Devon figurines were modelled by Kathleen Parsons and were produced in earthenware with a cellulose paint finish. Crown Figurines have used the original moulds, but have recreated the figurines in bone china with hand-painted on-glaze decoration. There are currently (2009) 16 figurines in a range priced from £125 upward. The business also manufactures a downmarket ‘Norcroft’ range of bone china figurines and reproductions of European art deco figurines in metal and ivorine.

Crown Staffordshire Porcelain Co. Ltd

Crown Staffordshire China Co. Ltd

(1903–1948), 1948–1974 (1985)

An important manufacturer of bone china wares at the Minerva Works, Fenton. The history of the Green family and ‘Crown Staffordshire’ dates to the mid 19th century. Brothers Thomas Allen Green and Spencer Green bought out other family member in 1876 and traded as T. A. & S. Green until the business was incorporated as Crown Staffordshire Porcelain Co. Ltd in 1903.

The company were important exporters to North America and continued in production as a nucleus company during the Second World War. In 1946 the company purchased the Heron Cross Pottery in order to expand production and in 1948 the name was changed to Crown Staffordshire China Co. Ltd. The firm continued to be owned and operated by the Green family until c.1964 when Semart Importing Co., the distributor of Crown Staffordshire wares in the USA, acquired the firm. Semart continued to use the Crown Staffordshire name until the company became part of the Wedgwood Group in 1974.

Crown Staffordshire wares include good quality tea and tableware, but the company is better known for its floral china, basketware, bone china jewellery, bird models and miniature wares. Wedgwood used the Crown Staffordshire name on speciality productions until about 1985.

Crown Sussex Ltd

Active in the mid-1970s

Manufacturer of Floral china. See the entry for Aristocrat Florals and Fancies

Crown Trent Ltd

Crown Trent China Ltd

(1980), 1980–Active 2009

Manufacturer of bone china tableware at Spring Garden Rd, Longton, Stoke-on-Trent. The business was established in 1980 as Crown Trent Ltd, a subsidiary of Healacraft Ltd, but closed after only three months in operation when the parent company went into receivership in July 1980. The Crown Trent name and factory were purchased by Stoke-on-Trent businessmen Alan Matthews, John Waller and Roy Steele and the name changed to Crown Trent China Ltd. The business has specialised in the production of mid-range tableware and mugs.

Crown Winsor

1984–1989

Earthenware manufacturer at the Sylvan Works, Longton. Crown Winsor (note spelling) was the name used by the United Co-operative Society (formerly the North Midland Co-operative Society) for its former Shaw & Copestake business following the collapse of the Longton Ceramics worker co-operative in 1984. The ‘Crown Winsor’ name reflects the Co-operative movement’s earlier ownership of the Windsor Pottery and ‘Windsor’ trade name. The Crown Winsor business was sold in June 1989 but quickly went into receivership. Crown Winsor produced general earthenware, including some typical SylvaC wares produced using the Shaw & Copestake moulds but marked with the ‘Crown Winsor’ name. For further information see the entries for Longton Ceramics and Shaw & Copestake Ltd.

Crownford Holdings Ltd

1988–1989

Holding company for the merged operations of Elizabethan Fine Bone China Ltd (formerly Taylor & Kent Ltd) and Rosina China Co. Ltd (formerly George Warrilow & Sons Ltd) from June to December 1988. Subsequently Crownford China Co. Ltd. See the entry below.

Crownford China Co. Ltd

1989–1994

China manufacturer at the Florence Pottery and the Queen’s Pottery, Longton. Crownford China Co. Ltd was the name adopted for the merged operations of Elizabethan Fine Bone China Ltd (formerly Taylor & Kent Ltd) and Rosina China Co. Ltd (formerly George Warrilow & Sons Ltd), both companies owned by the Shufflebottom family. The Crownford assets were acquired by the Churchill Group in 1994 and they are the current owners of the ‘Elizabethan’ and ‘Queen’s’ trade names.

Cube Teapots Ltd

Cube Teapots Co. Ltd

(1917–1925), 1925–1951

Manufacturer of earthenware teapots at Leicester, Leicestershire. Formerly Cube Teapots Ltd (1917–1925). Robert Crawford Johnson was the originator of the ‘cube’ teapot design and registered his original company, Cube Teapots Ltd, in 1917. Rather than produce the teapot, Crawford licensed the design to other manufacturers and Arthur Wood & Son (Longport) Ltd were the first to actually manufacture the teapot in c.1920. Other manufacturers including Wedgwood & Co., James Sadler, T. G. Green and George Clews imitated the novel shape and in 1925 Crawford founded Cube Teapot Co. Ltd in an attempt to promote his original design. Although successful in the ocean liner trade the cube shape did not displace the traditional teapot and the company closed in the early 1950s.